COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE – Wealth Explosion and a “New World”

MARKETS … MIGRATIONS … MAYHEM

HUGE “DEVELOPMENT” in the MAKING of the “MODERN” WORLD ...

[RE]-DISCOVERY of a “NEW WORLD”

MODERN “NETWORKS” … regional … global …

“CONNECTING” EUROPE, AFRICA, the AMERICAS …

SEEKING ASIA …

INTEGRATION … GLOBALIZATION … economics … political … cultural … religious … “ALL MIXED UP”

“INITIATED by CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS in 1492 … a Genoa-ese Sailing for Spain

the GOOD, BAD and the UGLY …

“APOCALYSE” = END of “OLD” … START of “NEW” WORLDS …

GLOBAL ECONOMIC EXPLOSION of WEALTH … OPPORTUNITY … ENTERPRISE

“PRODUCTION” … markets

“DESTRUCTION” … mayhem

The HUMAN CONDITION … BOTH “HUMANITY” and IN-HUMANITY …

GLOBAL INTERACTION

OPPORTUNITY and OPPRESSION … ENTERPRISE and EXPLOITATION …

ZERO SUM (I win, you lose) vs RISING TIDE (raises all boats)

mutually exclusive “exploitation” vs mutually beneficial “expansion”

1.)Western Expansion     2)globalized trade   3)Gunpowder empires

entire world truly connected/networkedfor the first time (inclusion of the Americas)

get to “Asia” markets – (China, India) 

Global exchange interaction – warfare, exploitation, slavery, colonization

International trade (dominated by Europeans)

“TRIANGLE” TRADE CONNECTS EUROPE, AFRICA and AMERICAS

Chinese exports of tea, porcelain, cotton     

Relative “isolation” of China        European “spread” to India, Indonesia  

COLONIZATION

re-discovery – European exploration – God, gold, glory(power)  brutality-greed

   1492-Columbus (Spain) to Americas   1498 Da Gama (Portugal) to India

    1607- British establish Jamestown in North America (Virginia)         

COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE  

     Cows / horses to Americas

    Potatoes, corn, tobacco to Europe, Africa, China

Extraction of “precious metals” from Americas   (creates economic  inflation)

Atlantic SLAVE trade – “re-inforced” what was ALREADY THERE                 

“exploitation” thru FORCED LABOR SYSTEM – African-labored Plantations

                                            Spanish “Encomienda” system (mines & rancho work)

eventually made “obsolete” by Industrial Revolution

PRINTING PRESS – information/literacy explosion

Military competition – European – British vs. French vs Spanish

EUROPEAN COLONIZATION

Cortes conquers Aztecs (1519-24)        Pizarro conquers Incas (1533)

“isolationist” China –

CHRISTIANITY vs ISLAM – Naval battle of LEPANTO (1571) -“west” defeats Ottomans, limits westward advance

Rise of Ottoman Empire (Turkey)   filled Islamic power “void” left by fall of Abbasids

TECHNOLOGY-DEMOGRAPHY

Faster and easier movement of peoples            better sailing ships, navigation(longitude) 

Magellan circumnavigates world by ship 1519-21

proto-mechanization            improved agricultural techniques (Agricultural Rev.)

GUNPOWDER empires/weapons –  cannons, muskets

12 million Africans “migrate” (forcibly)

MOVABLE PRINTING PRESS

Massive world population growth –             1400 -350 million    (almost doubles in   

(improved agriculture, global warming)      1700 – 610 million            300 years)

AMERICAN “MESTIZO” CLASS EMERGES (red + white = brown)

except “Native American” genocide thru disease (smallpox, measles)

       (estimates of 20 million down to 2 million)

proportionate decline in Native American population in relation to rise of livestock 

Chinese population – 1650 -100 million    1800- 300 million      1850 – 420 million

SOCIAL

Social diversification (growth of middles/merchant classes)

Decline of feudalism

CULTURAL-INTELLECTUAL

Exploration- scientific curiosity

Renaissance (“rebirth” of Greek-Roman influence) 

 Scientific Revolution – Enlightenment 

Nonagricultural ways of living